The 10 Best Vegan Shampoo Reviews & Buying Guide


Though any best shampoo guarantees the growth of healthy and shiny hair, it imbibes a variety of animal-based constituents and cruelty-based killing for testing analyses. Vegan shampoos are the most generous hair care products with a valuable preference in the market nowadays. However, very few vegan-based cruelty-free products are available in the market today. And, it’s a daunting task to select the best among them. 

Our research team grabbed the 10 best vegan shampoos and lets you make an easy-peasy selection from the many varieties. As not all such products may be the best and appropriate for all, beware of checking these two main factors before purchasing a vegan shampoo.

Official Vegan Certification: Fake vegan shampoos always prevail in the market, and you shouldn’t get into their trap just by their name. So, ensure that you distinguish between the fake vegan shampoos and the real deal by looking at the official vegan certification. Organizations like Peta, Leaping Bunny, and Vegan Awareness Foundation evaluate and provide these certification types to diversified brands.  

Hair type: This is a common and requisite criterion to choose any shampoo. The dry and damaged hairs need vegan shampoos with moisturizing ingredients like aloe vera and coconut. Whereas, oily hairs tune better to those having apple cider. 

Not just two! There are even other factors to look for to purchase the best vegan shampoo. Scroll down right away to the ‘Buying Guide’ provided below the product reviews. 

Best Vegan Shampoo 2023

Vegan ShampooQuantityHair typeBuy Now
Tea Tree Special Shampoo33.8 ozAll hair typesCHECK ON AMAZON
Avalon Organics Therapy Thickening Shampoo14 ozFine, thinning hairCHECK ON AMAZON
Avalon Organics Shampoo, Clarifying Lemon11 ozDry hairCHECK ON AMAZON
Shea Moisture Jamaican Black Castor Oil Shampoo16.3 ozDry hairCHECK ON AMAZON
Hair Shampoo - Christina Moss Naturals8 ozAll hair typesCHECK ON AMAZON
Trader Joe's Tea Tree Tingle Shampoo 16 ozAll hair typesCHECK ON AMAZON
Shampoo for Normal Hair with Lavender & Rosemary8 ozNormal hair typeCHECK ON AMAZON
Giovanni Invigorating Tea Tree Shampoo33.8 ozAll hair typesCHECK ON AMAZON
Acure Mega Moisture Argan Oil & Pumpkin Shampoo12 ozDry hairCHECK ON AMAZON
Puracy Natural Daily Shampoo16 ozAll hair typesCHECK ON AMAZON

Best Vegan Shampoo Reviews

1. Tea Tree Special Shampoo, For All Hair Types

Tea Tree Special ShampooThis is a vegan shampoo which is designed by Paul Mitchell who has always been a big name when it comes to hair care products. This is a gentle cleanser that removes all the dirt and the build-up and keeps the scalp fresh and hair smelling great.

This shampoo is enhanced with the therapeutic qualities of peppermint oil and tea tree oil.

It revives and replenishes each strand without making it greasy or weighing it down. Tea tree oil removes dandruff and soothes the itchy scalp. Peppermint oil improves blood circulation on the scalp and promotes hair growth.

Tea tree and peppermint also balances the oil production of the scalp and maintains the nourishment level on the scalp. The shampoo has a pleasant smell and removes dirt and build-up on the scalp.

The shampoo smells of peppermint oil, lavender and tea tree oil. The smell is not overpowering and is favourable for everyone. This invigorating shampoo is suitable for all hair types.

The shampoo is a cruelty-free product and the product was not tested on any animals. It is free of all harmful chemicals like parabens and sulphates.

Product Details:

Quantity: 33.8 oz

Hair type: All hair types

Scent: Peppermint, Lavender

Brand: Tea tree


  • Soothes your scalp.
  • Keeps the scalp healthy.
  • Free of harmful chemicals.
  • Pleasant fragrance.


  • Little on the expensive side.

Buy Now at Amazon 

2. Avalon Organics Therapy Thickening Shampoo

Avalon Organics Therapy Thickening ShampooAll Avalon products are cruelty-free. And recently they have come up with a vegan shampoo that has won awards for the exotic natural ingredients, essential oils and for its eco-friendly properties.

This volumizing shampoo by Avalon is enhanced with ingredients like saw palmetto, vitamin E and biotin. These components effectively build volume and are perfect for thin and fine hair. The product has rich cleansing properties. It adds moisture to each strand of the hair from the roots to the tips. The essential oils and organic botanicals with the balanced pH formula conditions the hair deeply from within and enhances volume.

The presence of organic and herbal ingredients make it safe for application and it has thumbs up from the hair experts and trichologists.

The product is free from all kinds of harmful chemicals like parabens and sulphates. There is no added colour or fragrances. It is a cruelty-free product and was not tested on animals.

Product Details:

Quantity: 14 oz

Hair type: Thinning, Fine

Scent: Biotin B

Brand: Avalon


  • Increases hair volume.
  • Strengthens the hair from the roots to the tips.
  • Contains organic ingredients.
  • Cleanses and moisturises the hair.


  • Little on the expensive side.

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3. Avalon Organics Shampoo, Clarifying Lemon

Avalon Organics ShampooBring back the lost shine to your dull hair with this vegan clarifying shampoo by Avalon. The brand brings you the best of both worlds by combining the natural ingredients and formulating the shampoo with scientific techniques. This shampoo uses lemon as the key ingredient which gently cleanses the hair and removes the dirt and build-up from the scalp. It’s best for oily and greasy hair.

Made with all vegan, organic botanical extracts, this clarifying lemon shampoo removes the excess oil without stripping moisture and leaves the hair clean and fresh. The ingredients include aloe Vera, vitamin E, plant protein quinoa and lemon essential oil and various essential oils. Aloe Vera, vitamin E and plant protein seals the hair cuticles and adds moisture. The careful blend between the ingredients adds shine, makes it smooth and bright and gets rid of the dull hair.

The shampoo is free of all kinds of harmful chemicals and is free of parabens, sulphates, phthalates. There are no added fragrances and added colours. It is a non-GMO product and a biodegradable product. This shampoo is ideal for dry hair.

Product Details:

Quantity: 11 oz

Hair type: Dry hair

Scent: Lemon

Brand: Avalon


  • Cleanses the hair gently.
  • Removes build-up from the scalp.
  • Adds shine.
  • Free of harmful chemicals.


  • Watery consistency.

Buy Now at Amazon 

4. Shea Moisture Jamaican Black Castor Oil Shampoo

Shea Moisture Oil ShampooShea Moisture uses Jamaican Black castor oil as the primary ingredient to repair and revive the dry, damaged and over-processed hair. This is a mild shampoo that nourishes the hair and cleanses the scalp from dirt and impurities gently.

The Jamaican Black Castor oil is powered with repairative omega that promotes healthy hair health and repair damage in the hair. Peppermint stimulates the hair follicles to make the hair stronger. Raw shea butter penetrates deep into the hair and hydrates, nourishes for healthier-looking hair. This protein-rich shampoo has amazing rejuvenating properties. Apple cider vinegar reduces the frizz, dryness and maintains the natural balance on the scalp.

The shampoo has a soothing peppermint fragrance. It is free of sulphates and other harmful chemicals. Also, it does not contain added colour or added fragrances.

It is a vegan shampoo and it is tested to be safe for naturally dry hair, chemically processed hair and heat-styled hair.

Product Details:

Quantity: 16.3 oz

Hair type: Dry hair

Scent: Peppermint

Brand: Shea Moisture


  • Nourishes your hair.
  • Cleanses your scalp.
  • Suitable smell.
  • Perfect for chemically styled hair.


  • Diluted formula.

Buy Now at Amazon 

5. Hair Shampoo – Christina Moss Naturals

Christina Moss NaturalsChristina Moss has come up with an organic vegan shampoo that cleanses and nourishes your scalp and hair gently. It also helps to revive the natural moisture of the hair by keeping the natural essential oils intact. It comes in eco-friendly packaging which makes it safe for the environment.

This original shampoo by Christina Moss Naturals’ effectively cleans the scalp with moisturising plant extracts. The essential oils and the fatty acids work together for soft, clean and lustrous hair. The organic aloe Vera further moisturizes and nourishes the hair. The natural ingredients make it suitable for sensitive scalp. This clarifying shampoo improves the health of the scalp and the hair.

There are no harmful toxic chemicals like SLS, parabens, sulfates, dyes or derivatives and silicone. It is a hypoallergenic shampoo that is safe even for a baby.

It comes in a tube pack with a normal cap for convenience of use. The natural ingredients make it suitable for all hair types.

Product Details:

Quantity: 8 oz

Hair type: All hair types

Scent: Unscented

Brand: Christina Moss


  • Great for sensitive scalp.
  • Free of harmful chemicals.
  • Suitable for all hair types.
  • Nourishes the hair.


  • Might cause frizz.

Buy Now at Amazon 

6. Trader Joe’s Tea Tree Tingle Shampoo 

Trader joes shampoo

Traders Joe’s Tea tree tingle shampoo is a vegan shampoo that is mild and gentle on the scalp. It is powered by the likes of tea tree, peppermint and eucalyptus botanicals which revives and repairs the dry and dull hair.

Tea tree is known for its rejuvenating powers which revive the shine and moisture from the frizzy and dry hair. The protein-rich ingredients like soybean protein, horsetail oil and yarrow oil nourish and moisturize the hair from the tips to the roots. It is perfect for the dry scalp as peppermint oil removes dandruff and soothes itchy scalp. It treats the hair gently but effectively. Also, it provides moisture on each strand of the hair.

The shampoo is formulated with natural ingredients which makes it suitable for all hair and scalp types. The addition of eucalyptus oil gives the shampoo an invigorating smell and leaves the hair feeling fresh.

It contains certified organic components. It does not have any kind of sulphates or parabens. It works amazingly for the dry scalp.

Product Details:

Quantity: 16 oz

Hair type: All hair types

Scent: Peppermint

Brand: Trader Joe’s


  • Contains certified organic components.
  • Revives the moisture of the hair.
  • Lathers well.
  • Perfect for dry scalp.


  • Watery concentration.

Buy Now at Amazon 

7. Shampoo for Normal Hair with Lavender & Rosemary

Shampoo for Normal Hair with Lavender & RosemaryJohn Masters Organic shampoo for normal hair with lavender and rosemary is a natural, vegan and sulfate-free Shampoo that is formulated to cleanse, nourish and maintain the balance of the hair. The shampoo has purifying and soothing properties which makes it suitable for sensitive, dry and itchy scalp.

The natural formula of the shampoo lathers really well and offers a creamy and rich lather. The fusion of the formula with French lavender soothes and hydrates the scalp and keeps it healthy. The rosemary oil nourishes and moisturizes the hair and keeps it frizz-free. Additionally, it adds exquisite shine to make the locks immensely lustrous.

It is formulated 70% with organic ingredients. It has naturally derived surfactants and is a clean and organic product.

The addition of rosemary and lavender enhances the smell of the shampoo. It is a cruelty-free product and was not tested on animals.

Product Details:

Quantity: 8 oz

Hair type: Normal hair

Scent: Lavender Rosemary

Brand: John Masters


  • Balances production of oil.
  • Rosemary oil adds shine and purifies hair.
  • Lathers well.
  • Locks in moisture.

Buy Now at Amazon 

8. Giovanni Invigorating Tea Tree Shampoo

Giovanni Invigorating Tea Tree ShampooGiovanni’s Invigorating Tea tree shampoo enhances the blood circulation on the scalp for a refreshed and renewed feel. It removes the flakes and dryness and retains moisture on the scalp, which is the main concern for dry and irritated scalp.

This cruelty-free shampoo is fused with a formula of safflower oil, tea tree oil and peppermint oil. It strengthens the hair follicles which promotes hair growth. It also makes the hair stronger and prevents breakage. The contents like eucalyptus and rosemary oils remove the unwanted impurities, soothes and moisturizes the scalp as well as the hair. It does not strip colour and is suitable for all hair types. It is perfectly suitable for color-treated hair.

It is free of all harmful chemicals like parabens, sulphates. The peppermint enhances the scent of the product and makes it favourable.

It is a vegan and cruelty-free product and was never tested on animals.

Product Details:

Quantity: 33.8 oz

Hair type: All hair type

Scent: Peppermint

Brand: Giovanni


  • Promotes natural hair growth.
  • Suitable for all hair types.
  • Organic ingredients.
  • Quick results.


  • Bad packaging.

Buy Now at Amazon 

9. Acure Mega Moisture Argan Oil & Pumpkin Shampoo

Acure Mega Moisture Argan Oil & Pumpkin ShampooAcure, the brand which is known for hair wellness has come up with this mega moisture shampoo. The intense hydrating formula makes it ideal for dry, damaged and curly hair.

The shampoo is enhanced with the likes of organic argan oil, pumpkin seed oil, CuQ10 and sea buckthorn oil which enriches the locks with moisture for a longer time. It provides ultimate hydration and helps to repair the damaged strands.

It also makes the unruly curly hair much more manageable and healthy. The natural ingredients add shine to your hair. The hydrating formula makes the hair shiny, silky and soft.

The product is formulated with plant-based ingredients. It is a vegan product and is 0% pretentious. It is free of sulphates, mineral oil, petroleum, silicone and parabens.

It is a cruelty-free product and it was not tested on animals during production.

Product Details:

Quantity: 12 oz

Hair type: Curly, damaged and dry hair

Scent: Pumpkin

Brand: Acure


  • Ideal for damaged and dry hair.
  • Suitable for lightened hair.
  • Adds shine to the hair.
  • Free of harmful chemicals.


  • Not meant for oily hair.

Buy Now at Amazon 

10. Puracy Natural Daily Shampoo

Puracy Natural Daily ShampooPuracy products are created by doctors and meant for both men and women. This natural daily shampoo is a vegan product that produces more foam for stronger hair. It is a natural and biodegradable shampoo that is mild on the scalp and suitable for all hair types.

The coconut-based, sulfate-free cleansers create luxurious and rich foam. Vitamin B5 and E with beet sugar extract and olive oil-based squalene moisturize and strengthen the hair. Moreover, it eliminates static and frizz. The protein-rich ingredients impart moisture to the roots of the hair and moisturizes the hair. It protects the hair and significantly improves the health of the hair and the scalp. It also leaves the hair feeling fresh and rejuvenated. The chemical-free shampoo improves the blood circulation in the scalp and promotes natural hair growth.

It does not contain any harmful chemicals like parabens, sulphates, SLS, dyes, petroleum-based products or animal-based products. The addition of mint and citrus enhances the smell of the shampoo.

It is a hypoallergenic, gluten-free and cruelty-free shampoo. It is suitable for all hair types.

Product Details:

Quantity: 16 oz

Hair type: All hair types

Scent: Citrus and mint

Brand: Puracy


  • Makes the hair stronger and healthier.
  • Eliminates static and frizz.
  • Hydrates the hair.
  • Protects the scalp.
  • Created and approved by chemists.


  • No things to mention.

Buy Now at Amazon 

Things to Consider Before Buying a Vegan Shampoo

Vegan-friendly shampoos are distinguishing hair care products that have to be chosen with extra care. It’s quite exhausting to derive the proper selection if you are unaware of what you have to look for. And yes, consider these crucial factors when choosing the best vegan shampoo for your hair. 

Official Vegan Certification 

This is the most significant mark you have to check when you are purchasing a vegan shampoo online or in your grocery store. Yet, many shampoos are named vegan-friendly but are fake without any standard certification. 

Organizations like Lepan Bunny, Peta, and Vegan Awareness Foundation certify cruelty-free beauty care products including vegan shampoos. So, ensure that your shampoo falls under the certified products. 

A vegan certificate is a trademark for shampoos that are void of animal products and their byproducts. They do not involve animal killing even to prepare the formula or to test it for efficiency. And the certification is only provided by scrutinizing the high standard settings, equipment usage, manufacturing process, and quality assurance. Such approved products will be named ‘100% vegan’.

Hair type:

All hair types do not need the same vegan shampoo because each of the dry, oily, normal, and damaged hair types has different requirements. And so, specific varieties have been designed to meet the needs of each hair type. 

Oily hair 

Your oily hair remains so with excessive oily secretion and deposits. So, it’s troublesome to pick a vegan shampoo to unsoil or clean such oily hair. Therefore, look for the ingredients which can remove the dirt from an oily surface. Apple cider and tea tree oil work well to remove the dirt from oily hair. So, grab the vegan shampoos with such constituents.  

Dry or Normal hair 

Dry hair, specific with less moisture and hydration, looks dull and lifeless. It’s not uncommon to choose a moisturizing shampoo for dry and normal hair to retain the moisture content in the hair. Look for moisturizing ingredients or humectants like glycerine, coconut oil, aloe vera, and others in vegan shampoos. Most of these shampoos use plant-based ingredients, and very few use chemical compositions to clean, moisturize, and nourish dry or normal hair. 

Color-treated hair 

Not all shampoos will be suitable for your color-treated hair because some of them may take off the color. And your expensive investment in coloring gets wasted! Always alert yourself when you see too much sulfate composition in shampoo because they strip off the color. So, stay away from sulfate-rich vegan shampoos. And yes, there are even some ingredients like green tea which reduce fading of the color. 

Sensitive scalp 

Sensitive scalps are often difficult to treat and need utmost care. Vegan shampoos with organic rosemary oil, lavender oil, peppermint oil, and others work well to clean and maintain sensitive hair. While the rosemary oil soothes and purifies the scalp, the lavender oil reduces the irritation. Also, avoid those which can increase the itchiness, irritation, and redness. 

While some vegan shampoos are suitable for all hair types, some others are specifically suitable for fine, dry, thick, coarse, and oily hair. 

Natural Ingredients:

By now, you might have understood the importance of the natural ingredients of vegan shampoos. The customized hair needs vary from person to person. And so, vegan shampoos are designed in different ways with different kinds of natural ingredients. They are free from harsh and harmful chemicals. 

Many ingredients such as argan oil, buriti oil, jojoba oil, and cupuacu butter, are some of the common ones present in vegan shampoos. They contain nourishing vitamins and nutrients which can assure better and healthy hair growth. 

Apart from the natural ingredients, some vegan shampoos use either natural plant-based essential oils for fragrances. They leave a pleasant aromatic smell to your hair but remain harmless. 

Ingredients to choose:

Each vegan shampoo has specific intrinsic natural ingredients and here are the most used ingredients. 

  • Tea tree oil – It removes dandruff from the scalp and removes the itchy feeling. 
  • Peppermint oil – It improves blood circulation and also promotes hair growth. 
  • Aloe vera – It hydrates the hair, makes hair stronger, and stimulates hair growth. 
  • Green tea – It eradicates the impurities and clears the scalp. 
  • Vitamin E – It enhances blood flow and improves hair health. 
  • Raw shea butter – It goes deep into the hair, maintains the moisture, repairs hair damage. 
  • Apple cider vinegar – It removes the frizz and dryness of the hair. Also, it maintains the pH balance of your hair. 
  • Soya bean protein – It nourishes and moisturizes the hair from the root to the tip. 
  • Rosemary oil – It maintains the hair growth and makes it frizz-free. 

Ingredients to avoid:

While you look for special ingredients in vegan shampoos, be alert to avoid some ingredients. 

  • Being vegan, they should not contain any animal-based products like milk or milk products, meat, silk, honey or bee products, feathers, animal skin, or other animal-related products. 
  • Also, there should not be ingredients made from animal-derived genes or GMOs.
  • Sulfates and alcohols – Mostly, vegan shampoos are organic and avoid chemicals. Yet, there may be some fake varieties with chemical entries. So, be away from those which contain sulfates and alcohols as they remove color and moisture respectively. 
  • Petroleum derivatives – Petroleum derivatives including mineral oils, parabens, dyes, chlorides, and heavy silicones will damage the hair. And so, not only a vegan shampoo but even a normal shampoo should not contain too many petroleum derivatives. 
  • Amino acids – Most shampoo brands use eggs as they are a rich source of amino acids. Yet, they may not mention the animal protein composition in the shampoo. So, it’s better to avoid such shampoos. 
  • Gelatin – Usually, shampoos use gelatin taken from animal skin, ligaments, and tendons. Yet, a vegan shampoo is free from gelatin and remains a safe and hygienic product. So, be careful to avoid the shampoos with gelatin. 
  • Keratin – Many believe that keratin is essential for hair strength. But, yes, be aware of the keratin source of vegan shampoos as some uncertified, yet vegan-named products may impose the animal hair extracts for keratin. 

Lightweight Shampoos 

We suggest purchasing a lightweight vegan shampoo that is less oily as it does not weigh down your hair once applied. Many may find it difficult to use heavier ones and to allow hassle-free usage for such people, lightweight shampoos are designed. 


Vegan shampoos are infused with certain essential oils to give a pleasant aromatic scent. While some think this factor is trivial, it’s often significant for others. Most people do not feel like using a shampoo if it smells powerful. Anyhow, different brands of vegan shampoos use assorted essential oil varieties for pleasant, vigorous, and lighter fragrance. So, you’ll have a wide choice ranging from eucalyptus, lavender, rosemary, mint, and others. However, there are even others which are odorless. 


Often, some people feel that a shampoo works well if it gives more lather. But, the efficiency of a shampoo lies in the performance of its ingredients, and not the amount of lather it gives. Generally, sulfates and other chemicals are the main constituents that cause lather in normal shampoos. But, though vegan varieties are devoid of such sulfates, they contain the plant-extracts of aloe vera, coconut, and others as lathering compounds.  

While some vegan shampoos give much foam and froth, others do not at all. Still, they are efficient. Therefore, check the lathering capacity and bubbling when choosing a vegan shampoo. 

And moreover, be careful to use only sufficient amounts of non-lathering vegan shampoos. Otherwise, you may use more for a much lather feel and finish away the expensive product sooner. 

What are the Benefits of Using a Vegan Shampoo?

Though any normal shampoo works well for your hair, there are many benefits of using a vegan shampoo. 

  • Less risk of irritation 

Unlike other normal shampoos, vegan shampoos are organic with plant extracts. And they avoid the use of harsh chemicals that may cause irritation, itching, and redness. As there is very little or no risk of health issues, they are more comfortable and suitable for people with sensitive hair and skin.

  • Cruelty-free and peace of mind 

Vegan shampoos are cruelty-free, and so you don’t support killing animals for your care and hygiene. And also, being considerate of ethical concerns, they give better relief and peace of mind to one who wishes to use pure and harmless shampoos. 

  • Eco-friendly

Vegan shampoos are eco-friendly and come in an easily recyclable package. So, you have a chance to favor and encourage environmental protection.

Frequently Asked Questions:

1. What does vegan shampoo mean?

Ans: A vegan shampoo means that it is cruelty-free, and does not contain any kind of animal-based ingredients. And it’s also not tested on animals. As the vegan shampoo avoids chemicals, it remains the marine life unharmed. It just uses biodegradable ingredients that are helpful to you and the environment as well. 

2. Is a vegan shampoo better?

Ans: Yes, vegan shampoos are very much better because there are no harmful substances that can cause skin irritations. And, most of them are suitable for all hair types. 

3. Why should I prefer vegan shampoos to regular shampoo?

Ans: Though regular shampoos work better for your hair, they contain many chemicals which may harm your hair. Also, they are made by severely harming the animal life. Whereas, vegan shampoos do not at all have chemicals, and so they are much preferable for sensitive hair. 

4. Is a vegan shampoo good for colored or treated hair?

Ans: Yes, there are vegan shampoos specially made for colored or treated hair. But, you have to check for the label and instructions to assure that it’s perfectly suitable for you and avoid color-fading ingredients. 

5. Are vegan shampoos sulfate-free?

Ans: Obviously, vegan shampoos have neither sulfates nor any other harsh chemicals like SLS, parabens, or others. 

6. Are vegan shampoos better than regular shampoos?

Ans: Vegan shampoos can be considered better than regular shampoos as they are free of harmful chemicals and ingredients. They are also free of allergens and irritants thus reducing the risk of reactions and irritations after using the shampoo. These shampoos are usually designed for all types of hair.

7. Can we use vegan shampoos on color-treated hair?

Ans: Vegan shampoos are free of sulfates and parabens in them. This makes the shampoo a good option for color-treated hair. This is because the absence of sulfates reduces the chance of color getting faded quickly. It is advised to go through the list of ingredients to ensure that they do not harm the color.

Final word:

Nowadays, the world has been inspirational towards vegan shampoos though expensive. They not only benefit the environment but also improve your hair condition much better if you choose the best product. Our research-based reviews and buying guide for the best vegan shampoos will definitely help you to use the right cruelty-free shampoo. 

Yet, if you are still confused, we recommend using the Tea Tree Special Shampoo that keeps the hair healthy. Being free of harmful chemicals, it is suitable for all hair types. Though it’s a bit expensive, you can certainly purchase it as you will experience the best results. 

If you have found our reviews worthy enough, please share your experiences and opinions regarding vegan shampoos. And, you can also write your comments, queries, and doubts here so that we help you know more about them.


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